Encyclopædia Iranica

When Themistocles was exiled from Athens he retired to Magnesia, which was then assigned to him by the king of Persia. To the period of his rule the following highly interesting coin belongs. AR Attic Didrachm, grs. Three specimens of these didrachms are known, all from different dies. The one in the British Museum is plated,—a fact which has been cited as confirming the reputation for trickery with which the name of Themistocles was associated; and a plated drachm is also said to exist in a private collection at Aidin. These plated coins were, however, perhaps not issued officially see R. Weil in Corolla Num. For the space of at least a century after this no coins of Magnesia are known, but after the middle of the fourth century the silver coinage becomes plentiful. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander, Berlin, , pp.

Specialists in the sale of Greek, Roman and Egyptian Antiquities

Hellenism is the term generally used by historians to refer to the period from the death of Alexander the Great B. Egypt was the last important survivor of the political system which had developed as a consequence both of the victories of Alexander and of his premature death. Finally, Hellenization is used with reference to Judea, Persia, etc. The words Hellenism and Hellenistic have a long history in which the text of the Acts of the Apostles 6: At least from the 16th century onward J.

Egypt Herodotus relates (iv. ) that Aryandes, who had been appointed satrap of Egypt by Cambyses, mortally offended Darius, son of Hystaspes, by issuing silver money which rivalled in purity the gold darics of the great king himself.

The father was a wealthy copper trader who had become a respected citizen of that city. Nicolaus’s father died between and After that, his maternal uncle, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger — , a church canon who would later become Prince-Bishop governor of the Archbishopric of Warmia , took young Nicolaus under his protection and saw to his education and future career. Nicolaus was the youngest of four children. His brother Andreas became an Augustinian canon at Frombork Frauenburg.

His sister Barbara named after her mother became a Benedictine nun. His sister Katharina married Barthel Gertner, a businessman and city councilor. Afterward, he followed the academic custom of his time and adopted a Latinized version of his name. In , Johann Gottfried Herder introduced the spelling Nikolaus Kopernikus, which replaced each c with k and changed pp to p.

This spelling became popular in German writings, although scholars argued for Coppernicus. Astronomy soon fascinated him, and he began collecting a large library on the subject. Copernicus’s library would later be carried off as war booty by the Swedes during “the Deluge” and is now at the Uppsala University Library. Copernicus’s uncle, Lucas Watzenrode the Younger , financed his education and hoped that Copernicus too would become a bishop.

Copernicus, however, while studying canon and civil law at Bologna, met the famous astronomer, Domenico Maria Novara da Ferrara.

History of the collection

The north was inherited by the Tanite 21st dynasty —c. Indeed, the dating of documents, even at Thebes , was in terms of the Tanite reigns, and apparently there were close family ties between the kings and the Thebans. Some members of both the Theban priestly and the Tanite royal lines had Libyan names. With the coming of the new dynasty, and possibly a little earlier, the Meshwesh Libyan military elite, which had been settled mainly in the north by Ramses III , penetrated the ruling group, although it did not become dominant until the 22nd dynasty.

Dockets pertaining to the reburial of these mummies contain important chronological data from the 21st dynasty. Photograph by Lisa O’Hara.

Ancient Egypt, civilization in northeastern Africa that dates from the 4th millennium many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to grow as archaeological finds expose its secrets.

Svoronos knew only the single BMC example. Nice dark glossy green patina. Much better than photo. Only a few examples known. Very rare and missing from most collections. Only 2 other examples known including one in the British Museum. The eagle is similar to those on Ptolemy V portrait tetradrachms.

The Ptolemy V coins with NI controls are said to be from ‘military mints’ of the 4th or 5th Syrian war. Perhaps this tripod type has a similar origin middle East while the others , are believed to come from Western Turkey Bodrum, Fethiye. Richard Ashton wrote an article on those arguing for the Turkish mints. The Ashton paper on coins at Fethiye turkey does not include these types. Interesting also that a couple of earlier issue Ptolemaic bronzes are known with a tripod countermark and perhaps are related to these.

Greek Gold Coins

Updated Jul 19, at 4: History buffs and those fascinated with Egyptian lore have been entranced by the recent discovery of an unopened sarcophagus in Alexandria. The tomb, found in the Sidi Gabe district, dates back more than 2, years.

Ptolemy II – Ptolemaic Mint on Sicily and Imitative Issues minted by Hieron II of Syracuse – Post-Reform ca. BC This is a very small series, with many of enigmatic style, of one denomination.

EL Trite — Third Stater 4. A fascinating and very rare issue from the dawn of coinage. EL Trite — Third Stater Before this, the type was known from a very few edamples. EL Trite — Third Stater 13mm, 4. Extremely Rare Star example, Magmificent strike with every detail of the lion sharply depicted and of superior style. Certainly amongst the finest extant.. The earliest pieces from mints such as Miletos, Ephesos and other unidentified cities in the Black Sea area known as Ionia date from about BCE according to archeologival evidence as recorded from celebrated digs such as those funded by the British Museum.

These dates have been challenged along purely speculative lines by modern numismatic theorists, using aesthetic die studies etc arguments to support dates ranging from – BCE. There is a visceral antipathy between archealogists and numismatists, so that the evidence brought by one group will be dismissed out of hand by the other.

There is agreement that the celebrated electrum coinage of Kyzikos served as a reserve currency throughout the Greek World and were treated as though they wee Gold. It seems probable that Electrum Staters from other City States throughout the region began in competition with the Kyzikene Staters probably in the mide Seventh Century but, with the exception of Lampsakos, by the middle of the Sixth Century most has been eclipsed by the Kyzikene Staters. Amongst the finest examples of this very rare issue, and one of the very few extant examples with a well struck horse around which the lotus-rosette motif is clearly visible on the flan.

Metals Used in Coins and Medals

Hellenistic tetradrachm of Pyrrhos, King of Epeiros The Flan The flan is the metal blank upon which the design of the die is imprinted to produce a coin. Precious metal coins electrum, gold, and silver are said to be struck al pezzo It. Other coins, such as some later bronze issues, fall within a range of acceptable weights. These coins are struck al marco It. While the actual production of flans varied, they were made generally by pouring molten metal into a mold; many ancient coins extant today still show traces of this casting process.

Sometimes flans were cast in strips of round blanks connected by a narrow bridge, or sprue.

overview of the handbook of greek coinage series. i. collecting greek coins ii. the technology of ancient coin production. iii. the origin and development of .

Introduction to ancient Egyptian civilization Life in ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population. Between the floodplain and the hills is a variable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game. To the south lay the far less hospitable area of Nubia , in which the river flowed through low sandstone hills that in most regions left only a very narrow strip of cultivable land.

West of the Nile was the arid Sahara , broken by a chain of oases some to miles to km from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals. The eastern desert, between the Nile and the Red Sea, was more important, for it supported a small nomadic population and desert game, contained numerous mineral deposits, including gold, and was the route to the Red Sea.

To the northeast was the Isthmus of Suez. From the late 2nd millennium bce onward, numerous attacks were made by land and sea along the eastern Mediterranean coast. At first, relatively little cultural contact came by way of the Mediterranean Sea , but from an early date Egypt maintained trading relations with the Lebanese port of Byblos present-day Jbail. Egypt needed few imports to maintain basic standards of living, but good timber was essential and not available within the country, so it usually was obtained from Lebanon.

Minerals such as obsidian and lapis lazuli were imported from as far afield as Anatolia and Afghanistan. Agriculture centred on the cultivation of cereal crops, chiefly emmer wheat Triticum dicoccum and barley Hordeum vulgare. The fertility of the land and general predictability of the inundation ensured very high productivity from a single annual crop. This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium bce, the greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East.

As the river deposited alluvial silt, raising the level of the floodplain, and land was reclaimed from marsh, the area available for cultivation in the Nile valley and delta increased, while pastoralism declined slowly.

Nicolaus Copernicus

Dayfa Khatun bint al-Adil Muhammad fem. AH CE. Medal; but rotated as shown. Hexagram type Dirham with posthumous dates Struck during

There was a fascinating clue found alongside the tomb: an alabaster head. Archaeologists believe the sculpture likely belonged to the owner of the tomb.

See Article History Ancient Egypt, civilization in northeastern Africa that dates from the 4th millennium bce. Its many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to grow as archaeological finds expose its secrets. For subsequent history through the contemporary period, see Egypt. Egypt, ancientA discussion of some of the most important sites associated with ancient Egypt.

Between the floodplain and the hills is a variable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game. To the south lay the far less hospitable area of Nubia , in which the river flowed through low sandstone hills that in most regions left only a very narrow strip of cultivable land. West of the Nile was the arid Sahara , broken by a chain of oases some to miles to km from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals.

Ancient Jewish History: Hellenism

You will also get the latest info on sales, new additions and more. We offer a wide selection of Egyptian antiquities for sale including Egyptian amulets; Egyptian bronze deity figures; Egyptian Cartonnage sections and fragments from sarcophagi; Egyptian faience artefacts artifacts including amulets, figures and other varieties; Egyptian gold and silver; Egyptian jewellery including Egyptian beaded necklaces, earrings and amulets; Egyptian shabti ushabti for sale.

Our wide selection of Egyptian ancient art for sale complies with ethical trading policies collected from private estates; collectors wishing to sell collections inherited and auctions.

With regard to the attribution of this primitive stater see infra, under Lydia, and for numerous divisions of the staters mostly of Lydian origin, though found at Ephesus, see Brit. Mus., Excavations at Ephesus, , pp. 74 ff.. There are also a number of silver coins of archaic times of various standards of weight.

It is here that we find the most important ancient account of Naukratis Hdt. According to Herodotus, the establishment of Naukratis as a settlement and trading post was a joint venture by Greeks from twelve different places: Naukratis contained their sanctuaries and for a time acted as a privileged gateway for trade between Greece and Egypt: Amasis became a friend of the Greeks and granted them a number of privileges; to those who came to Egypt he gave Naukratis as a city [polis] to live in.

To those who sailed there but did not want to live there he gave lands on which they might erect altars and sanctuaries to the gods. The largest and also the most famous and most used is the sanctuary called the Hellenion; it was founded jointly by cities of the Ionians — Chios, Teos, Phokaia and Klazomenai —, of the Dorians — Rhodes, Knidos, Halikarnassos and Phaselis — and one city alone of the Aiolians, Mytilene.

Map of the Eastern Mediterranean showing Naukratis and its founding cities. Drawing Kate Morton and Ross Thomas. Whichever other cities lay a claim to this, they claim for themselves nothing they have a share in. Besides these, the Aiginetans built a sanctuary of Zeus by themselves, and the Samians one of Hera, and the Milesians one of Apollo. Naukratis was in the past the only trading port in Egypt.

Whoever came to any other mouth of the Nile had to swear that he had not come intentionally, and had then to take his ship and sail to the Canopic mouth; or if he could not sail against contrary winds, he had to carry his cargo in barges around the Delta until he came to Naukratis.

Ancient Egypt

Element Cr , Atomic No. A hard white metal which is unsuitable for coinage, but which has been used to plate steel coins. An example of such use is the Canadian 5c pieces of and , which were nickel-plated steel with a surface plating of chromium to add wear resistance.

Cleopatra VII Philopator (Ancient Greek: Κλεοπᾰ́τρᾱ Φιλοπάτωρ, translit. Kleopátrā Philopátōr; 69 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, nominally survived as pharaoh by her son Caesarion. She was also a diplomat, naval commander, linguist, and medical author. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of.

In the earlier portions of the Avesta there is no trace of mathematical astronomy which in any case, would be inappropriate in such a context and only a few hints at some sort of observational astronomy involving the sun, the moon, and certain fixed stars. The earliest mathematical astronomy that developed in territory under Iranian control was that which originated in Mesopotamia, was improved during the Achaemenid period, and culminated in the Babylonian solar, lunar, and planetary theories of the Seleucid and Parthian periods.

That some of this Babylonian astronomy and the astral omen literature that was associated with it was adopted by scholars in Iran itself is implied by its transmission to India in the late fifth or early fourth century B. We have no direct evidence, however, that would clarify the nature of Iranian astronomy during the Achaemenid period. In the Parthian period, however, we do find evidence from eastern Iran that Babylonian mathematical astronomy and astral omens continued to be studied and that Indian concepts had begun to be influential.

The evidence for the second hypothesis is found in the Buddhist Sanskrit texts of which manuscripts were preserved in Central Asia or which were translated into Chinese or into Central Asian languages in the second century A. The latter were originally 27 or 28 constellations, in one of which the moon appeared to be on each night of a sidereal month; they had become, in the second half of the first millennium B.

10 Archaeological Discoveries That Rewrote History

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